Introduction to antenna: antenna terminology, radiation, retarded potential, radiation field from current element, radiation resistance of short dipole and half wave dipole antenna, network theorems applied to antenna, self and mutual impedance of antenna, effect of earth on vertical pattern and image antenna.
Antenna arrays: of point sources, two element array, end fire and broad side arrays, uniform linear arrays of n-elements, linear arrays with non-uniform amplitude distribution (binomial distribution and Chebyshev optimum distribution), arrays of two-driven half wave length elements (broad side and end fire case), principle of pattern multiplication.
Types of antennas: Babinet’s principles and complementary antenna, horn antenna, parabolic reflector antenna, slot antenna,log periodic antenna, loop antenna, helical antenna, biconical antenna, folded dipole antenna, Yagi-Uda antenna, lens antenna, turnstile antenna. Long wire antenna: resonant and travelling wave antennas for different wave lengths, V-antenna, rhombic antenna, beverage antenna, microstrip antenna.
Antenna array synthesis: introduction, continuous sources, methods-Schelknoff polynomial method, Fourier transform method, Woodward- Lawson method, Taylor’s method, Laplace transform method, Dolph- Chebychev method, triangular, cosine and cosine squared amplitude distribution, line source, phase distribution, continuous aperture sources.
Propagation of radio wave: structure of troposphere, stratosphere and ionosphere, modes of propagation, ground wave propagation, duct propagation. Sky wave propagation: Mechanism of Radio Wave Bending by Ionosphere, critical angle and critical frequency, virtual height, skip distance and LUF, MUF. Single hop and multiple hop transmission, influence of earths magnetic field on radio wave propagation, Fading Space Wave Propagation: LOS, effective earth’s radius, field strength of space or tropospheric propagation.
1. J. D. Krauss: Antennas;for all applications, TMH.
2. R. E. Collin, Antennas and Wave Propagation, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.
3. C. A. Balanis: Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.
4. Jordan and Balmain: Electromagnetic Fields and Radiating System, PHI.
5. A. R. Harish and M. Sachidananda: Antennas and wave propagation, Oxford University Press.
6. K. D. Prasad: Antennas and Wave Propagation, Satya Prakashan.
7. B. L. Smith: Mordern Anteenas, 2nd Edition, Springer, Macmillan India Ltd.
List of Experiments:
Following illustrative practical should be simulated with the help of any RF simulation software e.g. FEKO / HFSS / IE3D / Microwave Office / Microwave Studio or any other similar software:-
1. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of an Omni Directional Antenna.
2. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Directional Antenna.
3. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Parabolic Reflector Antenna.
4. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Log Periodic Antenna.
5. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Patch Antenna.
6. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Dipole/ Folded Dipole Antenna.
7. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Yagi (3-EL/4EL) Antenna.
8. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Monopole/ WHIP/ Collinear Antenna.
9. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Broad site Antenna.
10. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Square Loop Antenna.