Overview of Optical Fiber Communications (OFC): Motivation, optical spectral bands, key elements of optical fiber systems.
Optical fibers: basic optical laws and definitions, optical fiber modes and configurations, mode theory for circular waveguides, singlemode fibers, graded-index fiber structure, fiber materials, photonic crystal fibers, fiber fabrication, fiber optic cables.
Optical sources: Light emitting diodes (LEDs): structures, materials, quantum efficiency, LED power, modulation of an LED. Laser
diodes: modes, threshold conditions, laser diode rate equations, external quantum efficiency, resonant frequencies, structure and radiation patterns, single mode lasers, modulation of laser diodes.
Power launching and coupling: source to fiber power launching, fiber to fiber joints, LED coupling to single mode fibers, fiber splicing, optical fiber connectors.
Photodetectors: pin photodetector, avalanche photodiodes, photodetector noise, detector response time, avalanche multiplication noise.
Signal degradation in optical fibers: Attenuation: units, absorption, scattering losses, bending losses, core and cladding losses.
Signal distortion in fibers: overview of distortion origins, modal delay, factors contributing to delay, group delay, material dispersion, waveguide dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion. Characteristics of single mode fibers: refractive index profiles, cutoff wavelength, dispersion calculations, mode field diameter, bending loss calculation. Specialty fibers.
Optical receivers: fundamental receiver operation, digital receiver performance, eye diagrams, coherent detection: homodyne and heterodyne, burst mode receiver, analog receivers.
Digital links: point to point links, link power budget, rise time budget, power penalties.
Analog links: overview of analog links, carrier to noise ratio, multichannel transmission techniques.
Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) concepts: operational principles of WDM, passive optical star coupler, isolators,
circulators, Active optical components: MEMS technology, variable optical attenuators, tunable optical filters, dynamic gain equalizers, polarization controller, chromatic dispersion compensators.
Optical amplifiers: basic applications and types of optical amplifiers,
Performance Measurement and monitoring: measurement standards, basic test equipment, optical power measurements, optical fiber characterization, eye diagram tests, optical time-domain reflectometer, optical performance monitoring.
1. G. Keiser: Optical Fiber Communications, 4th Edition, TMH New Delhi.
2. J. M. Senior: Optical Fiber Communication- Principles and Practices, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education.
3. G. P. Agarwal: Fiber Optic Communication Systems, 3rd Edition, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.
4. J. C. Palais: Fiber Optics Communications,5th Edition, Pearson Education.
5. R.P. Khare: Fiber Optics and Optoelectronics, Oxford University Press.
6. A. Ghatak and K. Thyagrajan: Fiber Optics and Lasers, Macmillan India Ltd.
7. S. C. Gupta: Optoelectronic Devices and Systems, PHI Learning.
8. Sterling: Introduction to Fiber Optics, Cengage Learning. w.e.f academic session July 2010 Page 4 of 22
List of Experiments:
1. Launching of light into the optical fiber and calculate the numerical aperture and V-number.
2. Observing Holograms and their study.
3. Optic version Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
4. Measurement of attenuation loss in an optical fiber.
5. Diffraction using gratings.
6. Construction of Michelson interferometer.
7. Setting up a fiber optic analog link and study of PAM.
8. Setting up a fiber optic digital link and study of TDM and Manchester coding.
9. Measurement of various misalignment losses in an optical fiber.