RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL
PROGRAMME: Electrical & Electronics Engineering
COURSE: EX-601 Switchgear & Protection
Fault Analysis per unit, representation and its advantages, faults in power systems (Symmetrical & Unsymmetrical), Single line and equivalent impendence diagram representation of power system components. Symmetrical components and its application to power systems, fault analysis, Sequence networks and their interconnection for different types of faults, Effect of fault impedance, Current
limiting reactors, its location and application, Short circuit calculation.
Unit-II - Proactive Relays
Requirement of relays, Primary & backup protection, Desirable qualities of relays, Concept of Pickup, reset & drop-off, Drop off/ Pickup ratio, inverse time & definite time charters tics, Attracted armature, Balanced Beam, Induction disc, Induction cup, Moving coil & moving Iron, Rectifier Thermal, Bimetal directional relay, Frequency, DC, all or nothing relays. Pilot & negative sequence, Over current, Over Voltage, Directional, Differential and Distance relays, R-X diagram, Impedance mho & reactance relay. Introduction of static analog & digital relays, Classification of static relays.
Unit-III - Circuit Breakers
Elementary principle of arc quenching, recovery & re-striking voltage, arc quenching devices, description and operation of Bulk oil, Minimum oil, Air break, Air blast, SF6, Vacuum circuit breakers and DC circuit breakers, their comparative merits, LT Switch gear, HRC fuses, current limiting reactor & influence of reactors in CB ratings, Testing of circuit breaker.
Unit-IV - System Protection
Protection of Generators - Earth Fault, percentage, differential, Loss of excitation, Prime mover failure, Over current, Turn to turn fault, Negative phase sequence, heating, Reverse power protection schemes
Protection of Transformers
Internal & external fault protection, Differential, Earth fault, Over Current, Over heating, Protection schemes, Protection of transmission lines, Over current, Distance and carrier current protection schemes.
Switching surges, Phenomena of Lightning, over voltage due to lightning, Protection against lightning, Lightning arrestors, selection of lightning arrestors, Surge absorbers and diverters, Rod gap, Horn gap expulsion type & valve type lightning arrestors, solid resistance and reactance earthing, Arc suppression coil, Earthing transformers, Earthwires, Earthing of appliances, insulation co-ordination, Definitions determination of line insulation, insulation level of substation equipment, co-ordination amongst items of substation equipment.
List of Experiments:
1. Determination of drop out factor of an instantaneous over current relay.
2. Determination of operating characteristic of IDMT relay.
3. Determination of operating characteristic of differential relay.
4. Study and operation of gas actuated protective relay.
5. Study and operation of static over current relay.
6. Determination of transmission line parameters using MATLAB.
7. Analysis of power system faults (Symmetrical & Asymmetrical) using MATLAB.
8. Study of SF6 circuit breaker
9. Protectional simulation study of generator, Transformer, Feeder & Motor protection.
- B. Ravindran and M Chander, Power System protection and Switchgear, New Age
International reprint 2006.
- Badrirka, Power System protection and switchgear, TMH.
- CL Wadhwa, Electrical Power systems, New age International.
- Haddi Saadet, Power System Analysis, TMH
- A.R. Bergen, Vijay Vittal, "Power System Analysis, Pearson Education, Asia.
- Switchgear & protection Sunil S. Rao. Khanna Publication.