BPharma BRANCH: PHARMACY FOURTH IV SEMESTER
PY 403 PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS (THEORY)
1) Acid-Base titrations: Theoretical principles. Classification, Direct titration of strong acids, Strong bases, and weak bases, Back titrations, Acid –Base indicators, Choice of indicators and mixed indicators. Methods for determination of organically combined Nitrogen and in pharmaceutical applications.
2) Oxidation-Reduction titrations: Concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, strengths & equivalent weighs of oxidizing and reducing agents, redox indicators, potassium permanganate titrations, iodometry & iodometry, 9£dcammonium sulphate titrations, potassium iodate titrations. Pharmaceutical applications, preparation and standardization of redox titrants e.g. sodium thiosulphate etc.
3) Precipitation titrations: Detection of End Points in Precipitation reactions. Indicators used in Precipitation titrations, Preparation & standardization of titrants like silver nitrate, ammonium thiocyanate; titrations according to Mohr's and Volhard's methods; ammonium and potassium thiocyanate titrations; indicators; applications in pharmaceutical analysis
4) Gravimetric analysis: Fundamentals of gravimetry, Precipitation reagents precipitation techniques, Specific examples of gravimetric estimation like Aluminum as hydroxy quinolate, Barium on Barium Sulfate, Lead as Chromate and Magnesium as Magnesium Pyrophosphate.
5) Non-aqueous titrations: Scopes and limitations, Solvents used in non aqueous titrations. Acid-base equilibria in non-aqueous media, Titration of weak acids and weak bases with specific examples given in Indian Pharmacopoeia.
6) Complexometric titrations: Theory of Complexometric analysis. Factor in influencing stability of complexes. pM indicators. Types of Disodium edetate titrations with suitable examples.
7) Conductometry: Ohm’s law and ionic conductivities, Apparatus used for conductimetric titrations. Application of conductimetry in acid-base, Precipitation and complexometric titrations with suitable examples.
8) Potentiometry: Theory and principles, Reference electrodes, Indicators electrodes and Ion selective electrodes. Instrumentation for potentiometric titrations. Application of potentiometry for end point determination in acid-base titration, redox titrations, precipitation titrations with suitable examples
9) Polarography & Amperometry: Introduction, theoretical principles, organic polarography, dropping mercury electrode, basic principles of polarographic instruments, methods of analysis, experiments including amperometric titrations.
10) Miscellaneous methods of analysis like diazotization titrations and Karl-fisher titrations.