RGPV / RGTU B Pharma, PHARMACY 2nd (II) Semester PY 202 Pharmaceutics-II (Pharmaceutical Engineering-I) syllabus (Theory)
BRANCH: BPharma, PHARMACY SECOND II SEMESTER
PY 202 Pharmaceutics-II (Pharmaceutical Engineering-I) (Theory)
2. Solubility and Distribution Phenomenon: General principles: the phase rule, solubility expressions; Solvent-solute interaction: polar solvents, nonpolar solvents, semipolar solvents; Solubility of gases in liquids: Effect of pressure, temperature, salting out, effect of chemical reaction; Solubility of liquids in liquids: Ideal and real solution, complete miscibility, partial miscibility, influence of foreign substance, three component systems, dielectric constant and solubility, molecular connectivity, molecular surface are and solubility; Solubility of solids in liquids: Ideal solutions, Phase diagrams and the ideal solubility equation, nonideal solution, extended Hildebrand solubility approach, salvation and association in solutions of polar compounds, solubility and the heat of solution, solubility of strong electrolytes, solubility of slightly soluble electrolytes, solubility of weak electrolyte, the influence of solvents on the solubility of drugs, combined effect of pH and solvents, influence of surfactants; influence of hydrotropic agents on solubility of drugs. Distribution of solutes between immiscible solvents.
3. Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interfaces: surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy. Measurement of surface and interfacial tensions: Capillary rise method, The DuNouy Ring Method. Adsorption at liquid interfaces: surface active agents, Systems of Hydrophile - Lipofile classification, Type of mono-layers at liquid interfaces. Adsorption at solid interface, the solid-gas interface, the solid-liquid interface, Activated Charcoal, Wetting, Application of surface-active agents, Electric properties of interfaces.
4. Diffusion and Dissolution: Concept of diffusion, Study state diffusion: Fick’s first law, Fick’s second law, study state, Procedure and apparatus. Dissolution: dissolution rate, dissolution of tablets, capsules and granules, Powder Dissolution: The Hixson- Crowell cube Root Law. Drug release: Drugs in polymer matrices, release from granular matrices, multilayer diffusion, membrane control and diffusion layer control phenomenon, diffusion principle in biological system.
5. Viscosity and Rheology: Newtonian Systems: Newton’s Law of flow; kinematics viscosity; Temperature dependence and theory of viscosity. Non-Newtonian Systems: plastic flow, pseudoplastic and dilatant flow. Thixotropy: measurement thixotropy, Bulges and spurs, Negative thixotropy, Thixotropy in formulations. Determination of Rheologic properties: choice of viscometer, Capillary viscometer, Falling sphere viscometer, Cup and bob viscometer, Cone and plate Viscometer, Pharmaceutical application of Rheology.
6. Complexation and protein binding: Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, Pharmaceutical applications. Protien binding: Binding equilibria, equilibrium dialysis and ultrafilration, dyanamic dialysis, hydrophobic interaction, self-association, factors affecting complexation and protein binding.
7. Buffered and isotonic solutions: The buffer equation: Common Ion Effect and the Buffer Equation for a weak Acid and its slat, The buffer equation for a weak base and its salt. Factors influencing the pH of buffer solutions. Buffer capacity: Calculation of buffer capacity. Buffer in pharmaceutical systems and biologic system: In vivo biologic buffer systems, Pharmaceutical buffers, influence of buffer capacity and pH on Tissue Irritation, pH and Solubility. Buffered isotonic solutions: Measurement of tonicity, tonicity calculations, Methods of adjusting isotonicity and pH.
8. Colloids: Introduction to the dispersed System, Types of colloidal systems, Optical properties of the colloids, kinetic properties of the colloids, electrical properties of the colloids, Solubilization, Pharmaceutical application of the colloids, advanced thermodynamics of Micellization.
9. Coarse Dispersion: Suspension: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, Settling in suspensions: theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian Movement, Sedimentation of flocculated particles, Sedimentation parameters. Formulation of suspensions: Wetting of particles, Controlled flocculation, Flocculation in Structured Vehicles, Rheologic consideration, Preparation of suspensions, Physical stability of suspensions. Emulsions: Emulsion types, Pharmaceutical applications, Theories of emulsification, Physical stability of emulsions, Preservation of emulsions, Rheologic properties of emulsions. Semi-solids: Gels, Syneresis and swelling, Classification of Pharmaceutical semisolids, Hydrophilic properties of Semisolids, Rheologic properties of semisolids, Universe of Topical Medications. Drug Kinetics in Coarse disperse system, Drug Diffusion in Coarse Disperse Systems.