BPharma, PY 104 Pharmaceutical Chemistry - I (Physical Chemistry) 1st First Semester RGPV / RGTU B Pharma, PHARMACY 1st First Semester Syllabus
BPharma 1st sem PY 104 Pharmaceutical Chemistry - I (Physical Chemistry) Syllabus
Origin of the elements, valency, the mole concept, molar mass, compounds, chemical formulae. Introduction to atomic structure. Electronic configuration of atoms and relationship to structure of the Periodic Table. Properties of atoms, size, ionization potential, electronegativities etc. Quantum numbers, orbitals and the Aufbau process. Rydberg formula, Bohr atom, dual wave/particle nature of light and electrons. Angular and radial wavefunctions of atomic orbitals. H atom spectrum.
Molecular structure and chemical bonding:
LCAO approximation, molecular orbital theory and molecular orbital energy level diagrams. Polarisation and polarisibility of molecules. Molecular orbital electronic configuration of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Hydrogen bonding. Valence bond theory- important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p, d and f orbitals, shapes of molecules, VSEPR theory. Electron spin. Polyelectronic atoms and the orbital approximation. Quantum Mechanics
Postulates of quantum mechanics: Eigenvalues and expectation values. Time independent Schrodinger equation. The Born interpretation of the wavefunction. Solutions for particles in boxes. Schrodinger equation applied to vibrational and rotational motion. Interelectronic repulsion: SCF methodology and Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Slater type orbitals. Spin-orbit coupling. Atomic states and Hund's rules.
2. Physico-chemical properties of substances
Polarity of substances, dipole moment, dielectric constant, refractive index, optical rotation, density, specific gravity, viscosity, molar refraction, parachor relative permitivity, Bonding and non-bonding interactions, roentgen diffraction, polymorphism,isomorphism, isotropy, anisotropy, liquid crystals.
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes. spontaneity of chemical change; Free Energy. Equilibrium; Enthalpy and Entropy and spontaneous change
First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, standard state, thermochemistry, thermochemical laws, heat capacity, molar heat capacity, Hess's law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ioniz-ati on and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; ΔS of the universe and ΔG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, ΔGo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
Third Law of Thermodynamics: calculation of absolute entropies; specific heat; variation in enthalpy with temperature. Helmholtz and Gibbs energies, chemical potential, conception of absolute entropy. Calculations involving entropy and enthalpy; dealing with ions etc. Variation of G and K with temperature: Ellingham Diagrams, Giauque Function.
4. Chemical equilibrium
- Law of chemical equilibrium, Equilibrium constant, equilibrium degree of conversion and its control by reaction, conditions, LeChatelier principle, standard change of Gibbs energy during reaction, Equilibrium constants and their significance, Factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature , effect of catalyst.
- Acid-base catalysis, decomposition of medicinal compounds, accelerated stability analysis, kinetics of enzyme catalysed reactions.
Kinetics of more complex reactions: approach to equilibrium, parallel and consecutive reactions. Rate determining step. Steady state approximation and its uses.
Effect of temperature on rate and rate constant. Arrhenius equation, significance of activation energy. Kinetics of reactions in the gas phase - simple collision theory. Reactions in solution - transition state theory. Enthalpy and entropy of activation. Effects of solvent polarity and viscosity on rates of reaction.
Further applications of the steady state approximation - radical chain reactions. General definitions. Stoichiometry vs mechanism. Dependence of rate on concentration: rate constant and order of reaction. Experimental determination of rates of reaction. Determination of orders from rate measurements.
5. Phase equilibrium
Gibbs phase rule, types of systems, one component equilibrium, Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations, two component systems, Henry´s law, sparingly miscible liquids, solubility of solid substances, system solid substance - solvent, melts, Raoult´s law and its application, cryoscopy and ebullioscopy, osmotic pressure, three component systems, Nernst distribution law, extraction, ternary diagram, system of three liquids, interfacial phenomena, adsorption on solid surfaces. Phase diagram of mixture fractional distillation, eutectic mixtures.
6. Surface Chemistry
Adsorption : Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids - -Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism. acid base catalysis, theories of catalysis, catalytic poisoning and Pharmaceutical application of catalysis.
Liquid State: Solutions, Lowering of vapour pressure and Raoult's Law, osmosis and osmotic pressure, measurement of osmotic pressure, isotonic solutions, pharmaceutical applications of osmosis, theories of semipermeable membranes, colligative properties, elevation of boiling point and its experimental determination, depression of freezing point and its determination, distribution law and solvent extraction method, electrolyte and non electrolytes, Debye-Huckel theory, ionic equilibria in blood, characterization of acid base functional groups.
Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its applications, Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
List of Practicals
1. Determination of specific gravity of liquids using pycnometer and density bottle.
2. To study the effect of salt/Sugar in different concentration on density of water.
3. To study the effect of temperature on density of given liquid .
4. Determination of the viscosity of a liquid by Ostwald viscometer.
5. To study the effect of concentration on viscosity.
6. To study the effect of temperature on viscosity
7. Determination of the percent composition of a mixture of ethanol and water by viscometric method.
8. Determination of the surface tension of a pure liquid by the capillary rise method.
9. To determine the surface tension of liquid using stalagmometer.
10. To study the effect of temperature on surface tension.
11. To study the effect of surfactant on surface tension.
12. Determination of the percentage composition of mixture of ethanol and water by surface tension method.
13. Determination of interfacial tension between benzene and water by the drop size method.
14. Determination of the parachor value of an organic liquid.
15. Determination of solubility of benzoic acid over a range of temperatures and calculation of its heat of solution.
16. Determination of the mutual solubility curve of phenol and water.
17. Preparation of buffer solutions and measurement of pH.
18. Distillation of a mixture.
19. Determination of phase diagram in ternary system containing a single pair of sparingly miscible liquids.
20. Determination of distribution coefficient of substance between two immiscible liquids . (succinic acid between ether and distilled water).
1. P W Atkins, the Elements of Physical Chemistry, 2nd Ed., OUP, 1996
2. P W Atkins, Physical Chemistry 7th Ed., OUP, 2002
3. B G Cox, Modern Liquid Phase Kinetics, Oxford Science Publications, 1994.
4. J.R. Barrante: Physical Chemistry of Life Sciences, Printeil.
5. K.J. Laidler: Physical Chemistry with Biological Applications, Benjamin.
6. S.C. Wallwork: Physical Chemistry for Students of Pharmacy and Biology, Longman.
7. L. M. Atherden: Bentley and Driver’s-Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Oxford University Press, Delhi.
8. A.J. Mce: Physical Chemistry, E.L. B.S., London.
9. H.H.Willard, L.L. Merritt and J.A. Dean: Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
10. Samuel Glasstone and David Lewis: Elements of Physical Chemistry, Macmiilan Press, London.
11. A.H. Beckett and J.B. Staenlake: Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol. I and II. The Athlone Press of the University of London.
12. Gross J.M. and Wiseall B. Principle of Physical Chemistry, Macdonald and Evans Plymouth, England.
13. Gareth Morris J. A Biologists Physical Chemistry, Edward Arnold, London.
14. Martin A.N. Physical Pharmacy, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
15. Chang R. Physical Chemistry with Application to Biological System. Collier Macmilliar Publisher, London.
16. Barrow G.M. Physical Chemistry. McGraw-Hill, London.
17. Yadav J.B. Advanced Practical Physical Chemistry, Geol Publisher House, Meenet, India.
18. Vogel’s Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis including Elementary Instrumental Analysis, Longman, London.