Measurement and Error: Accuracy and Precision, Sensitivity, Linearity, Resolution, Hysterisis, Loading Effect. Measurements of Current, Voltage, Power and Impedance: DC and AC Ammeter, DC Voltmeter- Chopper type and solid-state, AC voltmeter using Rectifier, Average, RMS, Peak Responding voltmeters, Multi-meter, Power meter, Bolometer and Calorimeter.
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO): Different parts of CRO, Block diagram, Electrostatic focusing, Electrostatic deflection, Post deflection acceleration, Screen for CRTs, Graticules, Vertical and Horizontal deflection system, Time base circuit, Oscilloscope Probes, Applications of CRO, Special purpose CROs- Multi input, Dual trace, Dual beam, Sampling, Storage (Analog and Digital), Oscilloscope.
AC Bridges: Maxwell’s bridge (Inductance and Inductance-Capacitance), Hay’s bridge, Schering bridge (High voltage and Relative permittivity), Wein bridge, Wagner earth detector, Impedance measurement by Q-meter.
Signal generator & Display: Signal and Function Generators, Sweep Frequency Generator, Pulse and
Square Wave Generator, Beat Frequency Oscillator, Digital display system and indicators, Classification of Displays, Display devices, Light Emitting diodes(LED), Liquid Crystal Display(LCD).
Digital Measurement and Instruments: Advantages of Digital Instrument over Analog Instrument,
Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) - Variable resistive type, R-2R ladder Type, Binary ladder, Weighted
converter using Op-amp and transistor, Practical DAC. Analog-to-digital Conversion (ADC) -Ramp
Technique, Dual Slope Integrating Type, Integrating Type (voltage to frequency), Successive
Approximations, digital voltmeters and multi-meters, Resolution and sensitivity of digital meter, PLC
structure, principle of operation, response time and application.
1. H. S. Kalsi: Electronics Instrumentation, TMH.
2. K. Sawhney: Instrumentation and Measurements, Dhanpat Rai and Co.
3. Helfric and Cooper: Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques; Pearson.
List of Experiments:
All experiments (wherever applicable) should be performed through the following steps.
Step 1: Circuit should be designed/drafted on paper.
Step 2: The designed/drafted circuit should be simulated using Simulation Software
Step 3: The designed/drafted circuit should be tested on the bread board and compare the results with
the simulated results.
Step 4: The bread board circuit should be fabricated on PCB by one batch using PCB machine.
1. Study of CRO and Function Generator.
2. Displacement measurement by LVDT.
3. Force measurement by strain gauge.
4. Measurement of Capacitor, Self-induction using Q-meter.
5. Temperature measurement by thermistor, RTD and thermocouple.
6. Optical Transducer- Photo conductive, Photo voltaic, Photo-diode, Photo-Transistor
7. Design of digital to analog converter.
8. PLC operation and applications (for example: relay, timer, level, traffic light etc.)